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From that moment, the creature vowed revenge against humankind and especially his creator. Face to face with Frankenstein, he demands that his creator make a companion to relieve his agonizing loneliness.

Frankenstein agrees, but on the verge of animating the female creature, he destroys it. The creature responds by resuming his rampage of revenge.

Frankenstein vows to kill the monster. Ask students to compare and contrast the characterizations of the major and minor characters in the film and in the novel.

CD-ROMs To give students a chance to find their own pathways into the novel, have them explore one of the following multimedia programs.

Occasionally, have them read as they listen. Music Both musical and literary works from the Romantic era about to stressed the expression of emotions, including fear and awe.

To underscore this idea, play the following composition, an eerie song written by a leading Romantic composer and based on a legend. Rollin, Behrendt, Engaging analysis of all facets of the novel including related literature and films Photographs Be sure to preview all media links to determine whether or not the material is appropriate for your class.

Help students connect the novel to popular depictions of the monster Just Like Life Help draw students into the story by having them re-enact everyday situations that parallel those in the novel.

Ask each pair to devise and rehearse a skit based on one of the following situations. At the end of the activity, tell students that Frankenstein will require them to see an issue from multiple points of view.

Encourage them to describe the monster, the other main characters, and the plot as you continue to note their descriptions on the board.

Tell students that the novel is both a spine-tingling thriller and a serious meditation on important issues.

Would they characterize the other interpretations of Frankenstein that way? Why or why not? Point out to students that the novel they are about to read may touch on ethical issues similar to those raised by biological research today.

Biological Research Encourage students to research contemporary issues in biological science.

Have students form small groups and select one of the listed topics to investigate. Encourage them to look for print and Internet sources of information that discuss the ethical issues raised by their topic.

The activities that follow will help you present the novel in ways that meet the needs and interests of all students.

Less Proficient Readers Help students to identify and visualize the settings of the novel. In a separate key, or on the map if it is large enough, have them state briefly the main events that occur in each setting.

Have them connect the locations as Victor Frankenstein travels from place to place. Allow time for students to share and comment on their pictures with the class.

They should keep the log as they read and check it against those of their classmates so that they can identify and clear up any confusion that may arise.

Help students identify the different narrators in Frankenstein. In order to undertstand who the pronoun I refers to at any time, students should pay attention to the clues that signal a shift in narrator.

Have a volunteer explain what the term means a team that comes from behind and performs so well that it reaches or wins the final rounds.

Point out that writers of all kinds, from journalists to novelists, use literary allusions, or references to literary characters or works.

Discuss with students why writers do this to evoke emotion, suggest a mood, establish character, give depth to a theme. Also include literature guides that contain summaries of these works.

Bookmark the pages where each work is discussed. Encourage students to browse and spot-read in these books. Suggest that they note each allusion and write a few sentences about why Shelley might have included it.

You might point out that many of the poems alluded to were written by poets who were friends or acquaintances of the Shelleys or who were actively writing at the same time.

For the Teacher 5 iFRA Encourage them to explain their reaction using specific quotes from the review. In this book review, Regis summarizes how a scientific fantasy became a reality.

Note that the first cloning of a mammal, a sheep named Dolly, occurred in in Scotland. If so, how?

Did the review add to their understanding of the science of cloning? This modern gothic short story contains many allusions, both direct and indirect, to Frankenstein.

Frankenstein is told from the point of view of three different characters: Walton, Frankenstein, and the creature.

Each serves as narrator for part of the novel. BLM page She may have been influenced by this and similar legends of manlike giants or monsters.

In this science fiction story, two robots plot to outwit their makers. With students, list on the board situations in which they have been entertained by the image since their earliest schooldays.

Discuss the human attributes that are given to robots. He travels to England for latest research and collects materials for the project.

Frankenstein travels with Henry to Scotland. Frankenstein goes alone to work on an isolated island. Climax: Frankenstein nearly completes female creature, then destroys it.

The creature sees and vows revenge. Frankenstein is lost at sea and lands in Ireland. He is accused of murdering Henry.

He becomes mentally ill in prison but is freed. Frankenstein seems to love her but he also stays away from her for a long time.

He values his work more than family ties. He imagines creating a noble new species that would be grateful to him. He studies chemistry, galvanism, death, and decay.

When he sees how ugly the creature is, he is disappointed, frustrated, and frightened. He stays away from his family and from his schoolmates.

He senses that he may be doing something evil. He could be described as singleminded. Evaluate and Connect 4. He feels despair and guilt.

The creature says he was good but that misery and loneliness made him evil. Like Adam, he is the first of his kind and feels alone. Walton is an explorer searching for the source of magnetism near the North Pole.

He is curious, enthusiastic, and determined. Students might say he is intelligent and daring. Walton longs for a friend. He probably believes the sailors are uneducated and beneath him.

At first Walton is surprised that the stranger, who is near death, questions where the ship is going.

Walton has been wishing for a friend and the stranger shows an interest in the project. Like the mariner, the stranger wants to warn Walton not to follow in his path.

The harsh, remote setting and the theme of guilt suggest an ominous, gloomy mood. Walton says he would give up his fortune, even his life.

The stranger has apparently sacrificed his health and happiness. They are loving and attractive. He feels hatred for the first time.

He feels he is as isolated and alone as Adam. He feels he is as bitter and envious as Satan. He is angry at his creator for making him hideous and solitary.

He strangles William and puts evidence of the murder on Justine. The creature knows he can harm his enemies. He demands that Frankenstein create a companion for him.

Both characters suffer. Students may sympathize with the creature more because he wants to be good and has no hope of love. Students may say that it is unlikely the creature could learn to read from such difficult books.

They might also find the sudden appearance of Safie farfetched. He says Frankenstein alone has the power to grant him happiness. If he can be happy, he will not hate and destroy others.

Victor becomes depressed. He postpones his wedding. After dumping the remains of the second creature into the sea, he sleeps and his boat is driven off course.

He is accused of murdering a man found strangled. Little William was also strangled. Answer Key 7 iFRA He promises to tell her his terrible secret after they are married.

He pretends to be happy while preparing himself for a conflict with the creature. The creature has sworn to ruin his wedding night.

Elizabeth is murdered by the creature. He vows to destroy the creature or die trying. Frankenstein endures cold and fatigue but never slackens in his pursuit.

Neither of them achieve the satisfation of winning. They both die. After Frankenstein dies, Walton resumes the narrative in his letters.

Shelley shows both characters through the eyes of a third person and contrasts the ambitions of the two. Students may say Frankenstein was overreaching in ambition or idealism and failed to take responsibility for his actions.

The creature was unable to check his destructive impulses. Possible themes: intellectual striving must be balanced by compassion; people must take responsibility for their actions; personal ambition can destroy relationships, or good intentions can have destructive outcomes.

Students should support their answers with evidence from the novel. Students may note some of the following similarities and differences: Both Frankenstein and the creature are intelligent, sensitive, and vengeful.

Human companionship seems more important to the creature, though, because, although Frankenstein makes declarations about loving his friends and family, he stays away from them for long periods of time to work alone in his laboratory.

Unlike Frankenstein, the creature is loved by no one. Originally Frankenstein was motivated by curiosity and ambition, while the creature is motivated by the desire to learn and to find companionship.

Later, both are motivated by the desire for revenge. Some students may find the creature more sympathetic, since he never received any love or affection.

Like Prometheus of Greek myth, Frankenstein is destroyed for breaking through the bounds of what is human.

The creature, like Adam, is alone and longs for a companion. The true subject is the monster. The real issue is whether or not Frankenstein has created a monster or a creature worthy of human sympathy, understanding, and respect.

Ebert likes the portrayal of the creature and the per formance of DeNiro. Overall, he thinks the movie is a near miss. The scientists knew how to alter sheep genetically to produce milk containing drugs to treat human disease.

Operating on tiny cells is difficult. The reviewer seems to approve of cloning and is excited about the possibilities. Shelley, whose novel warns about scientific excesses, would probably be less enthusiastic.

A New Life 1. He remembers being pulled down in the river. He thinks back to being alone in the dark as a child. He thinks he might be in prison, arrested for his beliefs.

He discovers that his limbs are bound. He hoped, in defiance of his lifelong beliefs, that reincarnation was possible.

He fears he has been reborn into an unfamiliar body as punishment. In both works, a scientist has created a manlike creature which he sees as a failure.

The Golem 1. The emperor persecutes them, and they are often falsely accused of killing Christian children. A mysterious figure who may be a Jewish saint appears and tells Rabbi Leib to make a golem to save the Jews from harm.

The rabbi sculpts a figure out of clay. To animate it, he inscribes the name of God on its forehead in Hebrew.

He feels awed by the creative power of God. The golem will no longer do as he is told. He begins to mature, learns to speak better, wears clothes, and looks more human.

He is lonely. He destroys property and makes people fearful. The rabbi feels compassion for the golem, but his sense of duty to God and to society makes him put the golem to rest when his job is done.

Frankenstein rejects his creature, which has disappointed him by being ugly. Later Frankenstein briefly sympathizes with the creature and starts to create a female creature.

In the end, he becomes vengeful toward his creature. Unlike the creature, the golem finds a human being who loves him.

That Thou Art Mindful of Him 1. Some people today fear the control that computers now have over human life. Students might say society should give the creatures an education and protect them from harassment, while forbidding the creatures to hurt humans or each other.

Millions of people who have never heard of Mary Shelley know her story through the films and other media inspired by the novel. Her father, William Godwin, was an influential political philosopher and novelist.

When Mary was four, her father remarried. Mary received no formal education, but Mr. Godwin encouraged his daughter to read from his well-stocked library.

The Godwin household Frankenstein Study Guide was also a place of lively intellectual conversation. Many writers visited Godwin to talk about philosophy, politics, science, and literature.

When Mary was sixteen, she and Percy eloped to France. They spent their time traveling in Switzerland, Germany, and Italy, visiting with friends; studying literature, languages, music and art; and writing.

She gave birth to four children in five years, three of whom died as infants. Mary Shelley did not put her name on the novel when it was published in Many reviewers and readers assumed it was written by Percy Shelley because he had written the preface.

Remembering back fifteen years, she explained in the introduction how an eighteenyear-old came to write the unusual novel. She wrote four novels, including The Last Man , a futuristic story about the destruction of the human race.

She also wrote short stories, essays, and travelogues. She died in One which would speak to the mysterious fears of our nature and awaken thrilling horror.

Frankenstein was published in in England at the height of the Romantic movement. This movement in art and literature was based in part on the feeling of optimism about human possibilities that pervaded Western culture after the American and French revolutions.

In England the post-revolutionary period was also a time of economic suffering and social disorder as the new industrialism transformed English society.

The Romantic movement, which lasted from about to , pulled away from the period known as the Enlightenment, which emphasized reason and logic.

English writers of the Romantic period believed in the importance of the individual. They valued subjectivity, imagination, and the expression of emotions over rational thought.

The typical Romantic hero, found especially in the poetry of Lord Byron and Percy Shelley, is passionate, uninhibited, and unconventional.

Often the hero is an artist who is a social rebel or a melancholy outcast from society. In the introduction to the edition of Frankenstein, Mary Shelley explains how she came to write her famous novel.

During a period of incessant rain, the four of them were reading ghost stories to each other when Byron proposed that they each try to write one.

For days Shelley could not think of an idea. Then, while she was listening to Lord Byron and Percy discussing the probability of using electricity to create life artificially, according to a theory called galvanism, an idea began to grow in her mind: Perhaps a corpse would be re-animated; galvanism had given token of such things: perhaps the component parts of a creature might be manufactured, brought together, and [endued] with vital warmth.

The next day she started work on Frankenstein. A year later, she had completed her novel. It was published in , when Shelley was nineteen years old.

Frankenstein is an example of a gothic novel. This type of novel was popular between and The main ingredients of the gothic novel are mystery, horror, and the supernatural.

The word gothic itself has several meanings. It can mean harsh or cruel, referring to the barbaric Gothic tribes of the Middle Ages.

In literature the term applies to works with a brooding atmosphere that emphasize the unknown and inspire fear. Gothic novels typically feature wild and remote settings, such as haunted castles or wind-blasted moors, and their plots involve violent or mysterious events.

Through their conflict, Shelley poses profound questions about science and society and about the positive and destructive sides of human nature.

Today, in a world where scientific advances such as cloning and genetic engineering seem to be redefining life itself, her questions are no less relevant.

Often, they isolate themselves in nature and celebrate its beauty or its elemental rawness. They were also attracted to stories and settings from the past.

Percy Shelley, for example, made Prometheus, the symbol of creative striving in Greek mythology, the hero of his poetic drama Prometheus Unbound.

It is a powerful work of imagination that uses exotic natural settings and emphasizes the emotions of fear and awe.

Many scholars also see her novel as a critique of Romantic ideals. Frankenstein, is an ambiguous character who may or may not be worthy of our admiration.

Did You Know? His research opened the way to new discoveries about the operation of nerves and muscles and showed that electrical forces exist in living tissue.

Today, galvanism refers to a direct current of electricity produced by a chemical reaction. In the early s, scientists were on the verge of discovering the potential of electricity.

At this time, scientists knew about the existence of static electricity as well as electricity produced by lightning.

But they were just beginning to discover that electricity could be produced by a chemical reaction. In the s, Luigi Galvani, a professor of anatomy in Bologna, Italy, conducted experiments on animal tissue using a machine that could produce electrical sparks.

Share Ideas In a small group, list ways in which people throughout the ages have explored the unknown. Also, identify some reasons why individuals devote themselves to a life of exploration and discovery.

Does such devotion involve sacrifices? The Arctic When the novel opens, an explorer named Robert Walton is organizing an expedition through the Arctic, the area around and within the Arctic Circle and near the North Pole.

Travel by ship is extremely dangerous. Huge sheets of ice float through the frigid waters, threatening to crush the vessels that appear in their paths.

In the letters, which set the stage for the novel, Robert Walton says he has been deeply affected by the narrative poem The Rime of the Ancient Mariner, written by Samuel Taylor Coleridge, a leading poet of the Romantic era.

In the poem, an old sailor, or mariner, tells the story of a horrific sea voyage that changed his life. When the crewmen spot an albatross, a huge seagull-like bird, flying through the fog, the ice splits open, freeing the ship.

Then, unexpectedly, the mariner shoots the albatross. After this act of cruelty, the ship is cursed. Driven north, it becomes stranded in a hot, windless sea.

All of the crew except the mariner die. An allusion is a reference in a written work to something from history, art, religion, myth, or another work of literature.

Writers use allusions to give readers additional insights about what is happening in the story and why.

Shelley makes frequent use of literary allusions in Frankenstein. When you complete the chart, take time to think about the things the men have in common.

Analyzing Literature Recall and Interpret 1. Who is Robert Walton? What is he searching for? What is his attitude toward his quest?

What do these details suggest to you about his character? How does Walton respond to the stranger?

Why do you think Walton is attracted to the stranger? In this letter to his sister, what does Walton say he longs for?

Why do you think Walton feels lonely even though he is on board a ship with a full crew? Why is the poem The Ancient Mariner important to Walton?

How is the stranger similar to the ancient mariner? What mood does Shelley create by alluding to this poem? Walton has a thirst for knowledge, as the stranger once did.

What details suggest that both are willing to make sacrifices in the search for knowledge? Do they seem unusual in this respect?

Refer to your discussion in the Focus Activity on page Literature and Writing A Good Beginning? Do you believe the letters are an effective device for drawing readers into the story.

What did you learn about the stranger? On a separate sheet of paper write your analysis of the letters as a frame for the novel.

In these letters, Walton describes how he rescued the stranger. Assign one letter to each reader. To prepare for your reading, you may want to use an enlarged photocopy for easier reading and marking.

Practice reading the letter, underlining the most important sentences and making marginal notes about the emotions the character is expressing, if you have a copy to work with.

Circle any difficult words and check their pronunciation in a dictionary. When you read, adjust your rate of speaking, volume, and pitch to convey the feelings and attitude of the characters.

Learning for Life While many people use E-mail, especially in business, letter-writing remains an important skill. E-mail is a good choice for short, to-the-point messages, but a letter may be a better choice if you want to explain something at length.

A letter is also a good way to share and reflect on your experiences with people you know well. In your letter, describe one or more recent personal experiences in detail and reflect on the meaning of those experiences.

Save your work for your portfolio. When something bad happens that involves you, how do you know whether or not you bear some responsibility for it?

Discuss Evaluate these situations.

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We offer you various dimensions and car types. He destroys property and makes people fearful. The rabbi feels compassion for the golem, but his sense of duty to God and to society makes him put the golem to rest when his job is done.

Frankenstein rejects his creature, which has disappointed him by being ugly. Later Frankenstein briefly sympathizes with the creature and starts to create a female creature.

In the end, he becomes vengeful toward his creature. Unlike the creature, the golem finds a human being who loves him.

That Thou Art Mindful of Him 1. Some people today fear the control that computers now have over human life. Students might say society should give the creatures an education and protect them from harassment, while forbidding the creatures to hurt humans or each other.

Millions of people who have never heard of Mary Shelley know her story through the films and other media inspired by the novel.

Her father, William Godwin, was an influential political philosopher and novelist. When Mary was four, her father remarried.

Mary received no formal education, but Mr. Godwin encouraged his daughter to read from his well-stocked library. The Godwin household Frankenstein Study Guide was also a place of lively intellectual conversation.

Many writers visited Godwin to talk about philosophy, politics, science, and literature. When Mary was sixteen, she and Percy eloped to France.

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She gave birth to four children in five years, three of whom died as infants. Mary Shelley did not put her name on the novel when it was published in Many reviewers and readers assumed it was written by Percy Shelley because he had written the preface.

Remembering back fifteen years, she explained in the introduction how an eighteenyear-old came to write the unusual novel. She wrote four novels, including The Last Man , a futuristic story about the destruction of the human race.

She also wrote short stories, essays, and travelogues. She died in One which would speak to the mysterious fears of our nature and awaken thrilling horror.

Frankenstein was published in in England at the height of the Romantic movement. This movement in art and literature was based in part on the feeling of optimism about human possibilities that pervaded Western culture after the American and French revolutions.

In England the post-revolutionary period was also a time of economic suffering and social disorder as the new industrialism transformed English society.

The Romantic movement, which lasted from about to , pulled away from the period known as the Enlightenment, which emphasized reason and logic.

English writers of the Romantic period believed in the importance of the individual. They valued subjectivity, imagination, and the expression of emotions over rational thought.

The typical Romantic hero, found especially in the poetry of Lord Byron and Percy Shelley, is passionate, uninhibited, and unconventional.

Often the hero is an artist who is a social rebel or a melancholy outcast from society. In the introduction to the edition of Frankenstein, Mary Shelley explains how she came to write her famous novel.

During a period of incessant rain, the four of them were reading ghost stories to each other when Byron proposed that they each try to write one.

For days Shelley could not think of an idea. Then, while she was listening to Lord Byron and Percy discussing the probability of using electricity to create life artificially, according to a theory called galvanism, an idea began to grow in her mind: Perhaps a corpse would be re-animated; galvanism had given token of such things: perhaps the component parts of a creature might be manufactured, brought together, and [endued] with vital warmth.

The next day she started work on Frankenstein. A year later, she had completed her novel. It was published in , when Shelley was nineteen years old.

Frankenstein is an example of a gothic novel. This type of novel was popular between and The main ingredients of the gothic novel are mystery, horror, and the supernatural.

The word gothic itself has several meanings. It can mean harsh or cruel, referring to the barbaric Gothic tribes of the Middle Ages.

In literature the term applies to works with a brooding atmosphere that emphasize the unknown and inspire fear.

Gothic novels typically feature wild and remote settings, such as haunted castles or wind-blasted moors, and their plots involve violent or mysterious events.

Through their conflict, Shelley poses profound questions about science and society and about the positive and destructive sides of human nature.

Today, in a world where scientific advances such as cloning and genetic engineering seem to be redefining life itself, her questions are no less relevant.

Often, they isolate themselves in nature and celebrate its beauty or its elemental rawness. They were also attracted to stories and settings from the past.

Percy Shelley, for example, made Prometheus, the symbol of creative striving in Greek mythology, the hero of his poetic drama Prometheus Unbound.

It is a powerful work of imagination that uses exotic natural settings and emphasizes the emotions of fear and awe.

Many scholars also see her novel as a critique of Romantic ideals. Frankenstein, is an ambiguous character who may or may not be worthy of our admiration.

Did You Know? His research opened the way to new discoveries about the operation of nerves and muscles and showed that electrical forces exist in living tissue.

Today, galvanism refers to a direct current of electricity produced by a chemical reaction. In the early s, scientists were on the verge of discovering the potential of electricity.

At this time, scientists knew about the existence of static electricity as well as electricity produced by lightning.

But they were just beginning to discover that electricity could be produced by a chemical reaction. In the s, Luigi Galvani, a professor of anatomy in Bologna, Italy, conducted experiments on animal tissue using a machine that could produce electrical sparks.

Share Ideas In a small group, list ways in which people throughout the ages have explored the unknown. Also, identify some reasons why individuals devote themselves to a life of exploration and discovery.

Does such devotion involve sacrifices? The Arctic When the novel opens, an explorer named Robert Walton is organizing an expedition through the Arctic, the area around and within the Arctic Circle and near the North Pole.

Travel by ship is extremely dangerous. Huge sheets of ice float through the frigid waters, threatening to crush the vessels that appear in their paths.

In the letters, which set the stage for the novel, Robert Walton says he has been deeply affected by the narrative poem The Rime of the Ancient Mariner, written by Samuel Taylor Coleridge, a leading poet of the Romantic era.

In the poem, an old sailor, or mariner, tells the story of a horrific sea voyage that changed his life. When the crewmen spot an albatross, a huge seagull-like bird, flying through the fog, the ice splits open, freeing the ship.

Then, unexpectedly, the mariner shoots the albatross. After this act of cruelty, the ship is cursed. Driven north, it becomes stranded in a hot, windless sea.

All of the crew except the mariner die. An allusion is a reference in a written work to something from history, art, religion, myth, or another work of literature.

Writers use allusions to give readers additional insights about what is happening in the story and why. Shelley makes frequent use of literary allusions in Frankenstein.

When you complete the chart, take time to think about the things the men have in common. Analyzing Literature Recall and Interpret 1.

Who is Robert Walton? What is he searching for? What is his attitude toward his quest? What do these details suggest to you about his character?

How does Walton respond to the stranger? Why do you think Walton is attracted to the stranger? In this letter to his sister, what does Walton say he longs for?

Why do you think Walton feels lonely even though he is on board a ship with a full crew? Why is the poem The Ancient Mariner important to Walton?

How is the stranger similar to the ancient mariner? What mood does Shelley create by alluding to this poem? Walton has a thirst for knowledge, as the stranger once did.

What details suggest that both are willing to make sacrifices in the search for knowledge? Do they seem unusual in this respect?

Refer to your discussion in the Focus Activity on page Literature and Writing A Good Beginning? Do you believe the letters are an effective device for drawing readers into the story.

What did you learn about the stranger? On a separate sheet of paper write your analysis of the letters as a frame for the novel. In these letters, Walton describes how he rescued the stranger.

Assign one letter to each reader. To prepare for your reading, you may want to use an enlarged photocopy for easier reading and marking.

Practice reading the letter, underlining the most important sentences and making marginal notes about the emotions the character is expressing, if you have a copy to work with.

Circle any difficult words and check their pronunciation in a dictionary. When you read, adjust your rate of speaking, volume, and pitch to convey the feelings and attitude of the characters.

Learning for Life While many people use E-mail, especially in business, letter-writing remains an important skill.

E-mail is a good choice for short, to-the-point messages, but a letter may be a better choice if you want to explain something at length.

A letter is also a good way to share and reflect on your experiences with people you know well. In your letter, describe one or more recent personal experiences in detail and reflect on the meaning of those experiences.

Save your work for your portfolio. When something bad happens that involves you, how do you know whether or not you bear some responsibility for it?

Discuss Evaluate these situations. In each case, discuss whether person B has a responsibility to person A.

Setting a Purpose Read to find out how Victor Frankenstein deals with his sense of personal responsibility.

She also introduces a number of minor characters. Both Frankenstein and the creature have complex and multifaceted personalities.

In this regard, they stand out from the other characters in the novel. When a fictional character has individuality and depth, and experiences personal growth or change, he or she is called a round character.

The opposite of a round character is a flat character. Round characters are life-like and three-dimensional, while flat characters seem more like cardboard figures or stereotypes, and are not as well developed.

Alchemy was a field of philosophy that speculated about natural processes and often involved chemical experiments. Medieval alchemists believed they could find substances that would enable them to transform ordinary metals, such as lead, into gold or create a magical drink that would extend life and youth forever.

While alchemy is not true science, the alchemists did make some scientific contributions. They discovered mineral acids and alcohol.

They also invented types of laboratory equipment and procedures, which were later modified and used by scientists.

In the chart below, list each character and note important details about his or her background or personality. What do you admire or dislike about his goals?

Who is Elizabeth and how does Frankenstein feel about her? What does this tell you about his personality? What does he study? How is Frankenstein affected by the knowledge that the creature may be responsible for the death of William?

In Chapter 7, what statement suggests that he views the creature as part of himself? Do you agree with Frankenstein that he bears some responsibility for the death?

How does the creature explain his evil behavior? Why does the creature compare himself to the biblical character Adam? Do you think this comparison is accurate?

Literature and Writing Thrills and Chills Gothic novels emphasize horror, mystery, and the supernatural. Write an analysis of the gothic features of the novel Frankenstein that are evident in Chapters 1 through How does Shelley establish an atmosphere of mystery?

How does the action create a feeling of terror in the reader? What supernatural elements does she include?

Consider setting, plot, and character in your analysis. Focus your discussion on the following questions as well as others that occurred to you as you were reading.

In your opinion, is he an appealing person? Did he have a good motive for his project? Did he have adequate knowledge to begin his project?

Did he consider possible consequences of his actions? Art Connection Illustrate a scene from Chapters 1 through 10 that includes both Frankenstein and his creature.

Before you begin, reread the related passages of the novel to gather details provided by the author.

Remember that the familiar image of the creature from films is just one interpretation of his appearance. Use the evidence in the novel and your imagination to create your own visual interpretation of the creature.

Quickwrite Describe on paper a situation in which a person might feel he or she has been repeatedly rejected by others. What emotional response might the person have?

There are many definitions of tragedy. In literature, a tragedy is a story that ends in the downfall of its main character and arouses pity or fear in the reader.

As you continue to read Frankenstein, think about whether the novel fits this definition of a tragedy. A Fallen Angel Do these words sound familiar?

This book-length poem is a retelling of the story of Adam and Eve from the Bible. An equally prominent character in the poem is Satan, the lord of evil.

Milton depicts Satan as the chief angel of heaven who rebels against God and is cast into hell. Near the end of Chapter 10 of Frankenstein, the creature confronts his creator.

How does the creature get to know the family who lives in the cottage? Why is he drawn to the family? After reading Paradise Lost, why does the creature think he is like Adam in that book?

Why does he think he is like Satan? What are the specific reasons that the creature gives for hating his creator? How does the creature cause the deaths of William and Justine?

What does the murder of William tell the creature about himself? According to the creature, what can save him from doing evil?

Thus far, do you find the creature more or less sympathetic than the character of Victor Frankenstein?

Refer to the novel and your own experience in your answer. Literature and Writing Friend or Fiend? In what ways is he different?

Why does his goal seem unattainable? Does he have the potential for good as well as evil? To whom does he compare himself and why?

Support your analysis by citing events from the story as well as quoting statements made by the creature. Debate this question in your group.

What acts of revenge does the creature take? Are these acts justified? Is revenge ever justified? Before answering, consider the quickwrite you did for the Focus Activity on page How does he justify his actions?

Learning for Life Many companies and organizations have policies to help them evaluate job candidates.

These policies help to ensure that hiring decisions are made on the basis of relevant facts, not on prejudices and preconceptions.

Imagine you are an employer. Everyday you see job applicants who vary widely in their appearance. Come up with a list of guidelines for job interviewers that will ensure that diverse candidates are evaluated fairly.

Think-Pair-Share On a sheet of paper, write three reasons why companionship or love is an important part of the human experience. Then meet with another student and read your ideas aloud.

Discuss, blend, and adjust your lists to come up with three reasons that you both agree on. They lie a relatively short distance off the coast of Europe and were once connected to the continent.

Four groups of people call the islands home, the English, Scots, Welsh, and Irish. While the climate is uniformly maritime, consisting of mild winters, cool summers, and ample precipitation, the landforms vary from the mountains and rocky headlands of Scotland to the plains of Southeast England.

As we read, we wonder who or what is responsible for the events that take place, or we wonder how the events came about.

In other cases, the tragic outcome is known or strongly hinted at at the beginning of the story. As we read, the suspense comes from anticipating when the worst will occur or wondering if it can be prevented.

They give hints that suggest or prepare the reader for a later event. Such hints, or foreshadowing, might take the form of a statement by a character, a mood established in the description of the setting, or the revelation of an important trait in one of the characters.

Use as many boxes as you need but record the climax, or turning point, of this part of the novel at the peak of the diagram.

Frankenstein agrees to create a companion for his creature. What arguments does the creature use to persuade Frankenstein to make the female creature?

How does Frankenstein become lost at sea? What happens when he lands in Ireland? What keeps Frankenstein from completing the second creature?

How does Shelley create a feeling of suspense in Chapters 17 through 21? Did you find the events in Chapter 21 probable or improbable? Literature and Writing The Second Time Around Imagine that Victor Frankenstein has decided to write a letter to Elizabeth or his father that describes his thoughts about creating another creature.

Take on the role of Frankenstein as you write a letter of explanation. Does he have the same motives or different ones? Do you think his attitude toward such ambitious projects has changed?

Extending Your Response Literature Groups In your group, develop a soundtrack for this section of the novel. Review Chapters 17 through 21 to make a list of key scenes.

Make a two-column outline of your soundtrack. In the first column list the key scenes or events in order. In the second column identify or describe the music that will accompany the scene.

Focus on conveying the mood of the scene. If possible, play your music for the rest of the class or explain your choices.

Then use the scale on the map to estimate the mileage between each pair of locations in sequence.

To do this, you will need to consult the novel or make a guess about the form of transportation and route used.

Record and label your figures clearly on a separate sheet of paper. Add up the mileage to find the total distance he traveled from the beginning of Chapter 17 to the end of Chapter Compare your figures with those obtained by other students.

If some figures disagree sharply, discuss the method you used to arrive at your figure. Decide which figure is most accurate.

What does this mean to you? Freewrite Freewrite for five minutes about a person who is governed more by intellectual decisions than by emotional decisions.

What are the positive and negative consequences of relying more on your intellect than your emotions? Setting a Purpose Read to find how Frankenstein weighs emotional and intellectual factors in a decision he must make.

Five years after Frankenstein was published, Mary Shelley saw the first dramatic production of her novel. How well she might like the hundreds of interpretations since is interesting speculation.

In the film Frankenstein, starring English actor Boris Karloff, the monster comes to life on an operating table after being zapped with electricity.

Given a huge, squared-off skull and pale corpse-like skin, Karloff portrayed the monster as a gentle, almost childlike character.

His interpretation struck a chord with audiences, especially young children, from whom he received much fan mail. They wanted to find out what Frankenstein would have been able to achieve using the techniques and knowledge available at the time.

The result is a gray, scarred, hulking, patchwork sort of man. Two Characters in One? Careful readers of the novel, however, point out that this mistake has a certain symbolic truth.

They see the two characters as doubles of each other, or two parts of a divided self. The concept was based on the ancient belief that each living creature has an exact double who exists as a spirit or ghost.

Many writers of horror stories have employed the idea of the double. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, a respectable doctor becomes a murderous stalker by night.

In the chart below, record at least four statements made by each character that reveal his motives, feelings, or state of mind. Note the chapter number after each statement.

Can you imagine a different ending to the novel? What does Frankenstein promise to tell Elizabeth after they are married?

How does he behave in the weeks leading up to their wedding? Why is Frankenstein especially agitated as evening approaches on their wedding day?

How does Shelley show that Frankenstein and the creature are both obsessed with revenge? Does either of them win?

What happens to Elizabeth? What does Frankenstein resolve to do? How does Shelley return to her frame story in Chapter 24?

What effect does she achieve by using this frame story? How do you think Frankenstein failed or erred as a human being?

If they had had a chance to talk at this point, what might they say to each other at the end of their long chase? You may wish to incorporate or paraphrase quotations from the novel.

After you have written your dialogue, ask two other students to read it aloud and offer comments.

Extending Your Response Literature Groups In your group, come up with a personality profile, in the form of a word web, for each of the two main characters.

Draw the webs on the chalkboard or on paper, putting the name of each character in the center and branching out from there.

Listening and Speaking The theme of a work is the main idea, insight, or observation the writer offers. A work may have more than one theme, and even a single theme can be expressed in different ways.

Meet with five or six other students.

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